Pumapunku or Puma Punku is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, in western Bolivia. It is believed to date to 536AD and later. Since the radiocarbon date came from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the andesite and sandstone.
Blom, 2007 Urban Structure at Tiwanaku: Geophysical Investigations in the Andean Altiplano.Both of these stone blocks are part of the Plataforma Lítica and composed of red.
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Mining and Quarrying in the Ancient Andes: Sociopolitical, Economic, and. Modern day engineers argue that the base of the Pumapunku temple was constructed using a technique called layering and depositing. National Geographic News, Oct.
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- Much of the is characterized by accurately cut rectilinear blocks of such uniformity that they could be interchanged for one another while maintaining a level surface and even joints.
- The Tiwanaku civilization and the use of these temples appears to some to have peaked from 700 AD to 1000 AD, by which point the temples and surrounding area may have been home to some 400,000 people.
- The Pumapunku is a terraced earthen mound that is faced with blocks.
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Pumapunku or Puma Punku (and puma, puma, punku door, Hispanicized Puma Puncu) is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Site near Tiwanaku, in western. San Antonio, and Pierce Colleges. Several theories have been proposed as to how this labor force transported the stones, although these theories remain speculative.
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The precision with which these angles have been utilized to create flush joints is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting and a thorough understanding of. The remains of dismembered bodies have been found throughout the area. The second largest stone block found within the Pumapunku is 7. The show supports the ancient astronaut. The testing is going to be carried out at Purdue University in the US, coordinated by Dr.
On the northeast and southeast corners of the Pumapunku, it has 20-metre (66-foot) wide projections that extend 27. Origins of the Yeti, Nessie, and Other Famous Cryptids. Please click if you are not redirected within a few seconds. Please include your IP address in your email. Prothero and Tim Callahan explore why such demonstrably false beliefs thrive despite decades of education and scientific debunking.
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These excavation trenches also demonstrated the lack of any pre-Andean cultural deposits within the area of the Tiwanaku Site adjacent to the Pumapunku complex. They examine a variety of UFO sightings and describe the standards of evidence used to determine whether UFOs are actual alien spacecraft. This area was believed to have existed between heaven and Earth.
To sustain the weight of these massive structures, Tiwanaku architects were meticulous in creating foundations, often fitting stones directly to bedrock or digging precise trenches and carefully filling them with layered sedimentary stones to support large stone blocks. Two of the more common proposals involve the use of skin ropes and the use of ramps and. UFOs, Chemtrails, and Aliens: What Science Says - Donald R.
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Tiwanaku engineers were also adept at developing a civic infrastructure at this complex, constructing functional irrigation systems, hydraulic mechanisms, and waterproof sewage lines. Tiwanaku is significant in traditions because it is believed to be the site where the world was created. Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca.
Com - Over the millennia, from stone tools among early foragers to clays to prized metals and mineral pigments used by later groups, mineral resources have had a pronounced role in the Andean world. Com/books/about/Ancient_Aliens_Exposed. Com/books/about/DECODING_GOD_PUZZLE. Com/books/about/Mining_and_Quarrying_in_the_Ancient_Ande.
Unable to produce the massive crop yields necessary for their large population, the Tiwanaku are argued to have scattered into the local, only to disappear shortly thereafter. Was the Ark of the Covenant a mechanical device? Where did "modern" civilization begin? While their approach is firmly based in science, Prothero and Callahan also share their personal experiences of Area 51, Roswell, and other legendary sites, creating a narrative that is sure to engross both skeptics and believers.
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In assembling the walls of Pumapunku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones. In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots. In the south canal of the Pumapunku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. In, Puma Punku's name means "The Door of the Puma". Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.
The fill underlying selected parts of the edge of the Pumapunku consists of river sand and cobbles instead of clay. The geophysical data collected from these surveys and excavations have revealed the presence of numerous man-made structures in the area between the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes. The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of and red sandstone.
Employing the ground rules of science and the standards of scientific evidence, Prothero and Callahan discuss a wide range of topics including the reliability of eyewitness testimony, psychological research into why people want to believe in aliens and UFOs, and the role conspiratorial thinking plays in UFO culture. En Arqueología, antropología e historia en los Andes.
Isbell, professor at, a was obtained by Vranich from organic material from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill forming the Pumapunku. It contains the largest stone slab found in both the Pumapunku and Tiwanaku Site, measuring 7. It is believed to date to 536AD and later. It is theorized the Pumapunku complex as well as its surrounding temples, the Akapana pyramid, and functioned as spiritual and ritual centers for the Tiwanaku. Its weight has been estimated to be 85.
- ' In Metallurgica Andina: In Honour of Hans-Gert Bachmann and Robert Maddin, edited by T.
- 'Architectural cramps at Tiwanaku: copper-arsenic-nickel bronze.
- A Comparison of Tiahuanaco and Inca Cut-Stone Masonry: The.
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I-cramps of unknown composition were used to hold together the massive slabs that formed Pumapunku's four large platforms. Impossible to cut with the tools used in the period. In UFOs, Chemtrails, and Aliens, Donald R. In UFOs, Chemtrails, and Aliens, Donald R.
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- "Palaces and Politics in the Andean Middle Horizon", in Evans, Susan Toby; Pillsbury, Joanne, (PDF),: Research Library and Collection, pp.
- "The Construction and Reconstruction of Ritual Space at Tiwanaku, Bolivia: A.
I’ve taken a simple & direct approach to explaining the god. Many of the joints are so precise that not even a razor blade will fit between the stones. Metres (383 feet) long along its east–west axis. Metres (91 feet) north and south from the rectangular mound.
Some of the stones are in an unfinished state, showing some of the techniques used to shape them. Technology and Archaeology Workshop. Terrazas, 1970, Acerca De La Procedencia Del Material Lítico De Los Monumentos De Tiwanaku.
- Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia.
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- An extensive had been developed, including a complex that extended more than 30 square miles (80 km 2) to support cultivation of potatoes, corn and other various crops.
- Ancient Tiwanaku, Cambridge University Press.
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This culture seems to have dissolved rather abruptly some time around 1000 AD, and researchers are still seeking answers as to why. This layer was deposited during the first of three construction epochs and dates the initial construction of the Pumapunku to 536–600 AD (1510 ±25 C14, calibrated date). This page was last edited on 30 August 2017, at 22:44. Throughout his life he has also had an active interest in the sciences and the study of mythology and religious belief.
The unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy is also found in metal artifacts within the region between Tiwanaku and San Pedro de Atacama during the late around 600–900. These I-shaped cramps were also used on a section of canal found at the base of the pyramid at Tiwanaku. These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-lined canals that drain sunken courts.
Com/books/about/UFOs_Chemtrails_and_Aliens. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, Bochum, Germany. Disinformation Guide to Ancient Aliens, Lost Civilizations, Astonishing. Do myths describe interstellar impact?
The amazing alignment of the pyramids. The amazing alignment of the pyramids. The blocks were fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar. The blocks were so precisely cut as to suggest the possibility of prefabrication and, technologies far in advance of the Tiwanaku’s Inca successors hundreds of years later. The eastern edge of the Pumapunku is occupied by what is called the Plataforma Lítica.
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Examinations of hair samples exhibit remnants of psychoactive substances in many found in Tiwanaku culture from Northern Chile, even those of babies as young as one year of age, demonstrating the importance of these substances to the Tiwanaku. Excavations at the Pumapunku have documented "three major building epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodeling". Feet) wide and averages 1.
Prothero taught college geology and paleontology for 40 years, at Caltech, Columbia, Cal Poly Pomona, and Occidental, Knox, Vassar, Glendale, Mt. Protzen, Jean-Pierre; Stella Nair, 1997, Who Taught the Inca Stonemasons Their Skills? Puma Punku is thought to have been abandoned before it was finished.
Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Pennsylvania. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D. Edited by Nicholas Tripcevich, Kevin J. Empires Across the Andes National Geographic.
As was characteristic of civilizations around this time, the Tiwanaku actively incorporated into their culture.Based upon detailed and chemical analyses of samples from both individual stones and known quarry sites, archaeologists concluded that these and other red sandstone blocks were transported up a steep incline from a quarry near roughly 10 kilometres (6.Based upon the of the red from which it was carved, this stone slab has been estimated to weigh 131.
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By alternating layers of sand from the interior and layers of composite from the exterior, the fills would overlap each other at the joints, essentially grading the contact points to create a sturdy base.Callahan was trained as an artist and worked for more than 20 years in the animation industry.Click here to join me in 2014 on tours to Gobekli Tepe in Turkey in May/June with Andrew Collins - plus Peru and Bolivia, with authors Freddy Silva and Hugh Newman in October/November.